Authors: Paulo José Pyles CicchiI; Marco Aurélio de SenaII; Denise Maria Peccinini-SealeII; Marcelo Ribeiro DuarteIII
IUniversidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Laboratório de Herpetologia, Campus Botucatu, Rubião Junior, s/n, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu, SP, Brasil
IIDepartamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, IBUSP
IIILaboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
There are relatively few studies on snake fauna from coastal islands of the State of São Paulo (SSP), Southeastern Brazil and the number of species housed in Brazilian institutional zoological collections is relatively limited. In Brazil, for the first time, a snake inventory for eighteen islands of coastal SSP is presented. Here we record data from sampling on eleven islands as well information on vouchered species in the main herpetological collections. Thirty-six species from four families: one Boidae, thirty Colubridae, one Elapidae and four Viperidae from eighteen islands are listed as well as the thirteen new island records for snakes. Relative abundance categories were used for species rarity: common, infrequent and rare; 44.4% of the snakes with voucher specimens were considered rare. The most common species in twelve of the eighteen islands was Micrurus corallinus; in eleven of the eighteen islands were Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris; in ten of the eighteen islands were B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus. The most common snake species on coastal islands were Micrurus corallinus which was found in twelve of the eighteen islands, followed by Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris found on eleven of the eighteen islands and B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatuswhich were found in ten of the eighteen islands studied. There are seven new records of snake species for Cardoso Island (25° 05 S and 047° 59 W): C. bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus and Xenodon neuwiedii; three new records for Comprida Island (24° 54 S and 47° 48 W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus and H. carinicaudus; one for Anchieta Island (23° 32 S and 045° 03 W): Spilotes pullatus; one for Couves Island (23° 25 S and 44° 52 W): L. miliaris; one for Porcos Island (23° 23 S and 44° 54 W), B. jararaca. The endemic species B. alcatraz from Alcatrazes Island and B. insularisfrom Queimada Grande Island are considered endangered species by IUCN. Snake fauna on Monte de Trigo Island are extinct. The fragility of insular snake fauna needs more attention for environmental conservation, since 52.0% of snake species preys on amphibians, highlighting the importance of forest conservation.
Keywords: snakes, coastal islands, inventory, conservation, diversity.
Studies on island herpetological fauna are relevant since there is a significant human impact on these threatened environments, mainly by mismanagement of natural resources and predatory tourism. Few islands are unaltered by human action, and often anthropogenic alterations have taken place on a scale even greater than in most continental systems (Vitousek et al. 1995).
The coastal area of the State of São Paulo (SSP), southeastern Brazil, encompasses 106 islands isolated from the mainland by distances which vary from a few meters up to 38 km (Ângelo 1989), with a wide range of anthropogenic alterations.
As commented by Ângelo (1989), less than 10% of the insular environment in SSP has some official environmental protection. In fact, the relatively low representation of island species in the lists of threatened and endangered species around the world is emblematic (Vitousek et al. 1995). In Brazil, snake inventories on this set of coastal islands has still not been addressed, except for some studies made on a relatively small number of coastal islands of SSP (Ihering 1897; Amaral 1921; Luederwaldt 1923; Hoge 1950; Mertens 1955; Hoge et al. 1959; Müller 1968; Vanzolini 1973; Duarte et al. 1995, Marques et al. 2002; Centeno 2003; Cicchi 2004) which addressed specific biological aspects rather than snake inventories. As in Rodrigues (2005), except for the Crocodylia, the richness of the Brazilian reptile fauna is still underestimated because of insufficient inventories and too few taxonomists. The study of these insular faunas, comparing the fauna among themselves and with those from the adjacent mainland must, therefore, afford insight into several evolutionary mechanisms that have determined the formation of complex tropical biota (Vanzolini 1973). This study presents a first general approach for snakes living on coastal islands of Sao Paulo, based on fieldwork on nine different islands of SSP in Brazil and the lists of vouchered specimens of snake species from eighteen islands in the main herpetological collections of Brazilian Institutions. The fragility of insular snake fauna needs more attention for environmental conservation.
Material and Methods
Our inventory of the snakes inhabiting coastal islands of the SSP (between the latitudes 23° 20 S to 25° 15 and longitudes 44° 45 W to 48° 00, Figure 1 ; Climatic data Figure 2 ) was based on literature, on field inventory on some coastal islands and on recorded specimens in the following institutional collections: Coleção Herpetológica "Alphonse Richard Hoge", Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil (IBSP); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), Museu de História Natural "Prof. Dr. Adão José Cardoso" da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP, Brazil (ZUEC), Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (MNRJ) (Appendix 1 ). Fieldwork was conducted between 2000 and 2005 by opportunistic visual search on the following islands: Alcatrazes, Anchieta, Bom Abrigo, Buzios, Cananéia, Cardoso, Comprida, Couves, Queimada Grande, São Sebastião and Vitória (Figures 3-9 ). Snake specimens were also donated by island inhabitants. Relative abundance categories (RAC) were used for species rarity: Common : occurrence on more than five islands; Infrequent : occurrence on four distinct islands and Rare : occurrence on three or less islands. The RAC for snake species were compared with data from the SSP Atlantic Forest mainland available in the literature. Supplementary information on species occurrence on the islands was provided by experienced herpetologists.
With the combined information obtained in the literature, specimens housed in Institutional collections and from field collections by the authors of the present study, a total of 36 species was recorded for the eighteen studied islands: one Boidae, 30 Colubridae, one Elapidae and four Viperidae ( Table 1 , Figures 10-40 and Appendix 1 ). An asterisk marks each one of the 13 new records of snakes. There are seven new records of snake species for Cardoso Island (25° 05 S and 47° 59 W): C. bicarinatus , C. multiventris , Dipsas petersi , Echinanthera bilineata , E. cephalostriata , Helicops carinicaudus and Xenodon neuwiedii ; three new records for Comprida Island (24° 54 S and 47° 48 W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus and H . carinicaudus; one for Anchieta Island (23° 32 S and 45° 03 W): Spilotes pullatus ; one for Couves Island (23° 25 S and 44° 52 W): L. miliaris ; one for Porcos Island (23° 23 S and 44° 54 W), B. jararaca .
Data on the area of the islands of the SSP having voucher snake species in institutional herpetological collections or in the literature, distance of the island from the mainland, threats and category of use are shown in Table 2 . Comparative studies on island areas and the number of snake species (Figure 41 ) showed a strong positive correlation, (r = 0.72; p = 0.007; n =18). Data on distances from the continent and snake species richness (Figure 42 ) showed a negative correlation, (r = –0.39; p = 0.1; n =18).
From the total of snake species with voucher specimens deposited in institutional collections, 44.4%were considered rare, 25.0% were considered infrequent and 30.6% were considered common. The fragility of insular snake fauna needs greater attention for environmental conservation, since 52.0% of snake species preys on amphibians, highlighting the importance of forest conservation. ( Table 3 ). Frequency of snake species in the SSP islands is shown in Figure 43 . The most common species in twelve of the eighteen islands was Micrurus corallinus ; in eleven of the eighteen islands Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris were found; in ten of the eighteen B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus were found.
Field trips, number of collection, and sampling effort are shown in Table 4 . The islands which had a greater sampling effort were Queimada Grande Island (2,260 total hours/sampling effort), with the number of collectors in the crew varying from one to thirteen per trip; Anchieta Island (1,870 total hours/sampling effort), with one to nine collectors and Cardoso Island (1,516 total hours/sampling effort), with one to six collectors. There was a small positive correlation among sampling effort and the number of new records per island (r = 0.30; p = 0.36; n = 11), (Figure 44 ).
In fact, the SSP coast was one of the gateways to continental explorations since the beginning of the 15th century (Dean 1996). Deforestation and fire are commonplace on several islands both for occupation and survival by local population, including natives (Olmos et al. 2004) or due to an economy based on tourism. An associated tenet for conservation on both the SSP and several Brazilian coastal islands was the dependence on the unchanging mind set of the owner whether favorable or unfavorable for conservation of the native vegetation. Probably the only exception is where snake fauna extinction is definitive (e.g., Monte de Trigo Island) and where several wild carnivore predators were deliberately introduced and probably caused extinction of some representative species (e.g., Anchieta Island).
Studies of global extinctions of reptiles during the last 10,000 years demonstrate two clear patterns: the majority of extinctions occurred on islands and usually are associated with anthropic disturbances (Case et al. 1992). Whittaker (1998) presents four main problems resulting in island species being threatened by human action. The first is direct predation which in Table 2 corresponds to threat category F and G. The second threat is the introduction of non-native species; categories B and D. The third is contact with new diseases and parasites of exotic species ( for example, the gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia ) which is widely distributed along the coast and is a host for some protozoarians (Lainson & Paperna 1999), helminths (Anjos et al. 2005) and mites (Rivera et al. 2003) (category E). There are cases of parasite transport from reptiles to the islands (Goldberg & Bursey 2000; Rocha & Vrcibradic 2003). And finally there is the loss or degradation of habitat corresponding to categories A, C, D of Table 2 . Corke (1987) documented the local extinction of Clelia clelia and Liophis ornatus in the Lesser Antilles.
As expected from the classical theory of island biogeography (MacArthur & Wilson 1967), coastal islands of São Paulo State with a larger area tend to have a larger number of species. However, the data showed that the number of snake species decreased significantly with the distance of the island from mainland.
Thirteen species of snakes given as new records were sampled during the exiguous period, even though the capture effort has not been homogeneous for eleven of the field surveyed islands. Many other snake species are likely to exist and our findings should be considered preliminary, since during the brief fieldwork period we vouchered a specimen of Bothrops jararacussu from Bom Abrigo Island in the IBSP collection forty three years after the last specimen was recorded. Five of the six more common species of the eighteen islands had a wide range of distribution on the continent also. At the present time two insular species are endemic and threatened, Bothrops alcatraz (Marques et al. 2002) and Bothrops insularis (Duarte et al. 1995).
An interesting disjunct distribution occurs for Dipsas albifrons which is present on Alcatrazes, São Sebastião and Queimada Grande Island. The known distribution of D . albifrons includes a large gap along most of the continental portion of the State of São Paulo. Considering that São Paulo State has one of the largest populations in Brazil and that the Instituto Butantan has been receiving constant from São Paulo for more than a hundred years, it is likely that the disjunct distribution is not an artifact of poor sampling (Passos et al. 2005). Porto & Fernandes (1996) found the same pattern for Dipsas neivai , and suggested that natural events that caused regional extinctions, were caused by transgression of the sea level in the Quaternary (cf. Müller 1969; Vanzolini 1973).
Similarly, two voucher specimens of Waglerophis merremii were recorded in two different herpetological collections (IBSP and MZUSP) from Santo Amaro Island during the 1930's. This colubrid snake is typical of open areas, but cannot be found in this kind of landscape along the southeastern coast of Brazil. This is not the case for some open area species along the coast of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil that inhabits areas close to the seashore (Crotalus durissus cascavella from Itaparica Island), Boa constrictor constrictor (Argôlo 2004; MRDuarte, pers. observation) and Waglerophis merremii .
A single specimen of Boidae (Corallus hortulanus ) was recorded for SSP islands. Conversely, Corallus hortulanus and Boa constrictor are species commonly found on Ilha Grande (Grande Island) in Rio de Janeiro State (Soares et al. 1987). Two voucher specimens of Boa constrictor from Santos (São Vicente Island) (IBSP 8.641 and 17.428) in 1934 and 1958 respectively, were excluded because they were collected in the neighborhood of the largest harbor of South America and passive transportation must be considered.
The integrity and preservation of SSP island herpetofauna is limited since, with few exceptions (e.g., Queimada Grande and Alcatrazes Islands), many of these island environments are under uncontrolled human occupation and few of them are under legal protection (see Table 2 ). A striking appeal for SSP island preservation is the fact that 52% of the voucher specimens of snake species inhabiting these islands preys on amphibians that are sensitive to environmental disturbance.
We thank FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Programa BIOTA (Proc. 99/08291-5); IBAMA-RAN, Proc. 02027.004018/01-26; Instituto Florestal, Proc. 40.128. Antonio Bordignon, Luís Coelho and Ricardo J. Sawaya for photographies. Hussam Zaher, MZUSP; Francisco Luis Franco, IBSP, for the acccess to herpetological collections and Lígia Pizzato, ZUEC, for the ZUEC research. People of Cananéia: family Pedro Cardoso; Roberto Cardoso; family Rafael Xavier; family Carlos Lacerda Nunes, Cláudio e Selmo Bernardo; people Ilha Comprida: South, Santino Cardoso, Sítio Trincheira; "Paraíba", do restaurante Morretinho; Juan Carlos Machado, "Rambo"; Glauco e Maurício do Boqueirão Norte. Directors of PEIA, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta, and PEIC, Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Viviane Buchianeri and Marcos Campolim respectively. Staff of PEIC, Romeu Mário Rodrigues, Ilso Neves, Nanqui, Sr. Roberto, Lair; IO-USP,Base Cananéia, for colaboration. Valmir Augusto from Instituto de Biociências da USP; Elaine Cardoso de Sá; Antonio Bordignon, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Eduardo Nakano, Luís Coelho, Paulo Sérgio Garrubo, Fernanda da Cruz Centeno and Herbert Serafim de Freitas for help with fieldwork. Wayne Seale, IF-USP, for help in english version. Comunities of Itacuruçá, family Junior Neves and family João Cardoso, Comunity Foles,Gelson and Comunities Cambriú, Marujá, Pontal do Leste, Enseada da Baleia from Ilha do Cardoso.
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Recebido em 19/06/06
Versão Reformulada recebida em 08/05/07
Publicado em 05/07/07
1. Corallus hortulanus Santo Amaro Island IBSP 62926
Chironius bicarinatus : Anchieta Island IBSP 16023. Búzios Island IBSP 56236, 56951. MZUSP 3941-44, 4831-75. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2791. *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 1873. *Comprida Island IBSP 70529 IBSP Field no. 2740. Mar Virado Island (Vieitas, 1995). Porchat Island1 IBSP 14265, 14435. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22250, 68184. São Sebastião Island IBSP 56009, 58723. São Vicente Island IBSP 15850, 18761.
Chironius exoletus : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0671. Cardoso Island IBSP 55876, 70748, 72186, 72187 IBSP Field no. 1873, 0095-96, 1247. Comprida Island IBSP 11472-73, 11479, 31887. Mar Virado Island (Vieitas, 1995). Porchat Island1 . IBSP 14436, 14439, 14544-46. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22386, 22392, 28106, 29519, 29542, 29691. MZUSP 5611. São Vicente Island IBSP 704, 13934-35, 18135, 22090-91, 22249, 22571, 37375, 57389, 58363, 70043.
Chironius fuscus : Cardoso Island IBSP 43488, 43626, 70749, 71393, 71711, 72188 IBSP Field no. 1873, 3693, 0098. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14437-38. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8285, 21488, 23977, 26309, 40870, 42456, 43632, 44125, 44334. MZUSP 3177. São Vicente Island IBSP 2588, 13932, 13936, 15481, 23847, 27990, 30960, 32671.
Chironius laevicollis : Cardoso Island IBSP 56135, 71001 IBSP Field no. 2454, 1247. MZUSP 8866. Comprida Island IBSP 11468-69, 55973. São Sebastião Island IBSP 54190, 57433. ZUEC 1061. São Vicente Island IBSP 63635.
Chironius multiventris : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 4458, 0671. * Cardoso Island IBSP 71710, 71855, 72185, 72190 IBSP Field no. 3692, 0093-94. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22042-43, 22106, 22387, 22571, 24326-28, 24590, 25349, 40870, 42707, 45115, 45913, 58409. São Sebastião Island IBSP 54190, 57096, 57353. ZUEC 1062. São Vicente Island IBSP 8069, 22089, 29085, 33459.
Clelia plumbea : Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 955. São Sebastião Island IBSP 20420, 21696, 26977, 43981, 56932. São Vicente Island IBSP 21996, 22497, 29852.
Dipsas albifrons : Alcatrazes Island IBSP 13029, 62175. Queimada Grande Island IBSP 11488, 15808, 15809, 17151, 17213, 18426-27, 29727, 30088-90, 30092, 30094-95, 52670, 55723. São Sebastião Island IBSP 60345.
Dipsas alternans : São Sebastião Island IBSP 55951.
Dipsas petersi : *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3171. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 24165, 24478-80, 24636, 25934, 26040, 26091, 42458, 43999, 49231, 57302, 64909. São Sebastião Island IBSP 53647, 57090. São Vicente Island IBSP 9244, 10391, 13938-40, 25934, 41093, 55345, 55946-47.
Dipsas neivai : Cananéia Island IBSP 41999. São Sebastião Island IBSP 41027, 55877, 56628.
Echinanthera bilineata : *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 1247.
Echinanthera cephalostriata : *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 2103. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22572, 44127. São Sebastião Island IBSP 56933, 57089. São Vicente Island IBSP22251, 54814.
Echinanthera melanostigma : Santo Amaro Island IBSP 42336. São Vicente Island IBSP22572.
Echinanthera undulata : Comprida Island IBSP 52204. São Vicente Island IBSP56343.
Erythrolamprus aesculapii : Barnabé Island IBSP 28268. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 3367. São Sebastião Island IBSP 12902, 13584. São Vicente Island IBSP22215, 28968, 30043.
Helicops carinicaudus : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2726, 2021, 2531. *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3371. * Comprida Island IBSP Field no. 0670. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14267. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 43013, 45160, 63032, 67814, 68295. São Vicente Island IBSP800, 14267, 22094, 30965, 32484-86, 34095, 66996, 68118, 68307.
Imantodes cenchoa: Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 152.
Liophis miliaris : Anchieta Island IBSP 15818-21. Bom Abrigo Island 22723-24. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0260, 0671, 1863, 1869, 2531, 2677, 2796, 3106. Cardoso Island IBSP 56129, 71020 IBSP Field no. 2454, 2521, 3171. MZUSP data missing. Comprida Island IBSP 11477-78, 71175, 71313 IBSP Field no. 2740, 3035, 3171. *Couves Island (North coast) IBSP 70127. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14263, 14337-40, 14422-34, 14548, 59220. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 18287, 20856, 23992, 28001, 30234, 67349, 68401. MZUSP data missing. São Sebastião Island IBSP 11611, 27541. São Vicente Island IBSP 2607, 13933, 14263-64, 14337-40, 14422-35, 14548-49, 19723, 22072-73, 22076-78, 61395, 68306, 69189. MZUSP 4072; 4155-56, 4594-95, 4597, 4570-71, 788-9. Vitória Island IBSP15822-26.
Liophis poecilogyrus : Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 955. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 5304, 73190. São Vicente Island IBSP 7284. MZUSP 4596.
Oxyrhopus clathratus : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 3265, 1877. Cardoso Island IBSP 62463 IBSP Field no. 3171. São Sebastião Island IBSP 10064, 26877, 57724, 68430, 69919. São Vicente Island IBSP5778.
Sibynomorphus neuwiedi : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2781, 4246, 4458, 0258, 2793, 2799. Cardoso Island IBSP 56134 IBSP Field no. 3371. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 18288, 22044, 70108. São Sebastião Island IBSP 31157, 56245, 56440, 55950, 67857, 69129. São Vicente Island IBSP19029, 43235.
Siphlophis pulcher : Alcatrazes Island IBSP 13030. Búzios Island MZUSP 3945-46. ZUEC 2226. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2799. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22398, 22465, 33119, 51902, 56637, 63235. São Sebastião Island IBSP 58492, 58621, 62854. São Vicente Island IBSP10449, 13937, 41222, 45793.
Sordellina punctata : Comprida Island IBSP 40851.
Spilotes pullatus : *Anchieta Island IBSP 74439, 74440. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2025, 2041. Cardoso Island IBSP 29199 IBSP Field no. 1259, 1131, 2454, 3171, 0099. MZUSP 10254. Comprida Island IBSP 11470-71, 67752-53 IBSP Field no. 3266. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14460-61. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8492, 19660. São Sebastião Island IBSP 12237, 57535. São Vicente Island IBSP 13260, 13942, 13962-63, 14907, 15416, 15418, 30905.
Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri : Comprida Island IBSP 45873, 52203, 69182. São Sebastião Island IBSP 23677,40921,40926, 40927, 42945, 44776, 44778, 53736, 54215, 55118, 57092, 57494, 57725, 62020, 64084, 68482, 70741.
Tomodon dorsatus : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0673. Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 1143. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14440-48. São Vicente Island IBSP7892, 14342, 14460-61, 15686, 18425, 22095-96, 56208, 67558.
Tropidodryas serra : Cardoso Island IBSP 56209, 56521, 57423, 59463 IBSP Field no. 3171, 4228. MZUSP 10240. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 27126, 28226, 31943, 42240, 47052, 47103.
Tropidodryas striaticeps : Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3643. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 18650.
Xenodon neuwiedii : Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0263, 0671. * Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 0699. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 68620. São Sebastião Island MZUSP 2607.
Waglerophis merremii : Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8644. MZUSP 3594.
Micrurus corallinus : Alcatrazes Island IBSP 62274-75. Anchieta Island IBSP 417-18, 2653. Barnabé Island IBSP 29684. Búzios Island IBSP 56223. MZUSP 3935-39. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2454. Cardoso Island IBSP 70752 IBSP Field no. 1873, 1844. MZUSP 9970, 10239. Comprida Island IBSP 7184, 8468, 11476, 31891, 41697, 42212, 42302, 42306, 42352, 42602, 42608, 42688, 42891, 42987, 43010, 43266, 43769, 43936, 45879, 46250, 46317, 49256, 50498, 71151 IBSP Field no. 1691, 0250. MZUSP 8209, 12404. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14268, 14464-65. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 21329, 24396, 31892, 41831, 42174, 45435, 46379, 46557, 49484, 51563. MZUSP 3539, 10499-500, 11591. São Sebastião Island IBSP 12219, 12455, 12789-90, 12811, 12901, 13589, 14221, 25044, 42568, 45307, 49722, 56309, 57404, 60871, 61106, 62825, 68481. São Vicente Island IBSP 11312, 14268, 14341, 14464-65, 14614, 15415, 22498, 22526, 23654, 23831, 24164, 29444, 30948, 30979, 32260, 32974, 37322, 40263, 40400, 42359, 42373, 42985, 44261, 45983, 47674, 50697, 53394, 53402, 55725, 62383, 62434, 68684. Vitória Island MZUSP 3947.
Bothrops alcatraz (Endemic): Alcatrazes Island IBSP 584-88, 13031-32, 13126, 13135, 13183, 16211-12, 56133, 55124, 55578-81, 55791, 57105, 57107, 62238, 62290, 62392. MZUSP 1453. ZUEC 2224-25.
Bothrops insularis (Endemic): Queimada Grande Island IBSP n > 500. ZUEC 1869-72.
Bothrops jararaca : Anchieta Island IBSP 417-18, 655. Búzios Island IBSP 13133, 26160-63, 56256, 56952, 57253. MZUSP 3862, 3934. ZUEC 2713. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 3698-99, 2016, 2054, 2799, 3366. Cardoso Island IBSP 56302, 56388, 57106, 57475 IBSP Field no. 1502, 2454, 3171, 3265. Comprida Island IBSP 11474. *Porcos Island (Ricardo Janini Sawaya, personal communication). Porchat Island1 IBSP 14450-59, 14562-64. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 55524, 55863-64, 57246, 64763, 69008. MZUSP 3583-84. São Sebastião Island IBSP n > 200. São Vicente Island IBSP 10459, 13922, 14262, 14450-59, 14562-64, 15840, 18722, 58322, 61373, 62316, 62765. Vitória Island IBSP 18866-82. MZUSP 3949-52, 5577-85.
Bothrops jararacussu : Anchieta Island IBSP 16307-09, 62833, 64672, 64917-18. Bom Abrigo Island IBSP 22720-22 IBSP Field no. 3370. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0671, 0673, 2531, 2544, 2740, 3699. Cardoso Island IBSP 53807, 56210, 56429, 56472, 70750-51, 71225 IBSP Field no. 1259, 1845-46, 2017, 2031, 2788, 3371, 3908. *Comprida Island IBSP Field no. 2723. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14462-63. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 55536. São Sebastião Island IBSP 10547, 12092, 12238, 12239, 12521, 12788, 13235, 54205, 55573, 57603, 61366, 61715-16, 61943, 64457. São Vicente Island IBSP 2621-24, 13961, 14462-63, 15484, 15752, 22528, 23979, 52494, 52536, 52553, 63728. Vitória Island IBSP 18864-65.
Biota Neotrop. vol.7 no.2 Campinas 2007